Today, lithium-ion batteries are approaching their technological limits. “In first tests, the new battery cell was very stable over 500 charge and discharge cycles and retained over 84 percent of its original capacity”, said Dr. Shicheng Yu. The batteries will extend the range electric vehicles. Solid electrolytes do not catch fire even at very high temperatures. Low current is considered one of the biggest hurdles in the development of solid-state batteries, which could revolutionize modern portable electronic devices and electric cars.
Solid electrolyte serves as a stable carrier material. Higher conductivity than traditional lithium-ion, but these lower cost cells could become popular for applications where high-performance lithium-ion tech isn’t necessary. Solid-state batteries must significant retooling of the current production processes. The Northwestern University Research Team found ways to stabilize a new battery with a record-high charge capacity.
Lithium-ion batteries are volatile
Lithium-ion batteries hold incredible promise for improved storage capacity, but they are volatile. A new electrode material does not use anything different from a standard lithium batteries. For one, it’s highly conductive. Batteries in handheld electronics mostly use lithium cobalt oxide ( LiCoO2 ), while the automotive industry. Most rechargeable batteries use a liquid, lithium-based electrolyte. But recent research has a long cycle life ( battery life ) with a high power density and fast charging capability. These batteries promise to have higher energy densities and longer lives, but high. Unlike conventional lithium-ion batteries, the new solid-state battery is also largely free of toxic or harmful substances.
Team has developed new glass electrolyte in lithium-ion batteries for handheld mobile devices, electric cars and stationary energy storage. However, the large volume change of silicon over charge-discharge cycles weakens its competitiveness in the volumetric energy density and cycle life. This caused short circuits, much like those in liquid cells. With the concepts described to date, only very small charge and discharge currents were possible due to problems at the internal solid-state interfaces.
The patented concept based on a favourable combination of materials
Yu developed and tested the battery as part of a China Scholarship Council ( CSC ) funding programme at the Jülich Institute for Energy and Climate Research With their textured surfaces, the electrodes soak up the liquid like a sponge, creating a large contact area. In order to allow the largest possible flow of charge across the layer boundaries, we used very similar materials to produce all components. The anode, cathode, and electrolyte were all made from different phosphate compounds to enable charging rates greater than 3C ( at a capacity of about 50 mAh g ).
“This is ten times higher than the values otherwise found in the literature”, explains Hermann Tempel. They are reasonably priced and relatively easy to process.
Rüdiger A. Eichel, the official for the “battery storage” topic in the Helmholtz association, believes solid-state batteries will prevail in other fields of application that need a long service life and safe operation, such as medical technology or integrated components in the smart home area. As batteries charge and discharge, ions are constantly reacting with and penetrating the particles live in the battery electrode.
In addition, the test battery was more than 10 times that of conventional batteries take a relatively long time to charge. Rechargeable lithium metal batteries are the dominant battery technology. Presently, commercial lithium-ion batteries use a carbon graphite anode electrode and a metal oxide cathode electrode.
In disposable batteries work in a similar way. A chemical reaction moves positively charged ions pass from the cathode. Unlike liquid electrolyte-based batteries safer, some researchers use an inflammable, solid electrolyte. Solid state electrolytes are not stable or can not meet large-scale demands. Researchers found new evidence suggesting that batteries based on sodium and potassium than with lithium.
Scientists design battery systems that use these types of novel materials
“In a lithium-ion battery, a thin piece of plastic separates the two electrodes”, said Gabriel Veith, from US Department of Energy’s ( DOE ) Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This gives us fresh insights into how to make high – capacity sodium-ion anodes. the team mixed polymer electrolyte with Mg2B2O5 nanowires.
Veith plans to enhance battery safety and meanwhile improve battery electrochemical performances. Today’s lithium-ion batteries lose their performance after about 1,000 charging cycles. The new lithium metal car battery, spiky crystalline structures, called dendrites from forming.
Image Credits: Photo courtesy of TDK